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What should be the layout of fruit trees on a plot in the garden?


Considering the placement of fruit trees, it is necessary to take into account their varietal characteristics in terms of the strength of crown growth (vigorous, medium-sized , low- growing ). 10-12 years after planting the garden, the crowns of many trees grow strongly and, with a thickened planting, completely close, forming continuous thickets. At the same time, replanting mature trees over 3 m in height is extremely difficult.

Therefore, when a planting plan is already outlined, you need to find out the dimensions of adult trees, take graph paper, a compass and, adhering to a scale of 1 mm = 1 m, make a drawing. Note that the feeding area of each calculated plant should not be determined with a margin, as this will lead to irrational use of the land.

In young orchards, while the crowns have not grown, it is advisable to occupy the aisles for sowing vegetable crops. It is recommended that you immediately outline the vegetable crop rotation. Experienced amateur gardeners recommend, for these purposes, to divide the territory of the site left for vegetables and strawberries into 8-13 "fields" and annually change the location of each crop, which will ensure the rational use of nutrients in the soil. This measure is also necessary as a preventive measure against diseases and pests.

 What should be the layout of fruit trees on a plot in the garden?

An approximate scheme of such a crop rotation: 1 - radish, lettuce, dill, parsley (for herbs), new planting of strawberries (in August - early September); 2 - young strawberries; 3 - strawberries of the first year of fruiting; 4 - strawberries of the second year of fruiting; 5 - strawberries of the third year of fruiting; 6 - potatoes; 7 - cucumbers, tomatoes; 8 - carrots, beets and other root vegetables; 9 - onions, garlic, peas.

When developing a layout for fruit trees, it is extremely important to take into account the biological characteristics of species and crops so that the most light-loving plants do not end up in the shade, behind the house, other buildings, under the canopy of trees.

To avoid strong mutual shading of trees, it is better to place them in rows. The distance between the rows depends on the height of the trees. The free space in the aisles should be equal to the height of the trees, i.e. the ratio between these two parameters should be 1: 1. With a crown width of 2.5-3 m and a tree height of 2.5-3 m, the distance between the rows will be 5-6 m. However, the distance between trees in a row may be, depending on the variety and rootstock, otherwise - from 2 to 4— 6 m. Low-growing apple trees with a rare openwork crown ( Welsey ) can be placed at a distance of up to 3 m, and if they are grafted onto low-growing rootstocks, then even closer.

Apple trees of vigorous varieties, such as Autumn Striped ( Streyfling ), should be planted more freely - 5 or even 6 m from one another. So that the place is not empty in vain, in the first 10-12 years, you can plant compactors between them - apple trees of early-growing varieties such as Welsey , Melba or cherry, which after the growth of the trees of the main planting must be uprooted.

The orientation of the direction of the rows can be any; experts did not observe significant differences in the yield of trees and the quality of fruits. However, preference is still given to the direction from north to south - especially if you create fruit walls. In this case, the lighting on all sides of the row will be uniform throughout the day.

Since the scheme for planting trees in the garden largely depends on the adopted formation, of course, you need to think about it first of all. What shape of crowns to choose - each gardener decides individually. Some people like it when there are few trees on the site, but they give good shade, while others, on the contrary, want to have a pomological garden and try to grow different varieties. In the first case, the larger the crown, the larger the trunk and branches, the better. In the second approach, the opposite is true: the smaller they are, the more trees can be placed. But most gardeners prefer "moderate" gardening. They usually grow regionalized or promising varieties. Trees are formed with a regular spherical crown, are pruned systematically, so medium-sized plants bear fruit moderately, but almost every year. The placement of breeds and crops is well planned. However, it should be noted that in this group of gardeners there is also a tendency towards more intensive use of the entire garden plot: to have more trees, more varieties of different ripening periods, to get a greater yield from each square meter of the plot.

Hundreds of the most diverse forms of crowns and systems of their formation are known: classical and modern, complex and simple. However, it should be borne in mind that the more intensive the crown, i.e. the greater the yield of high-quality fruits it provides from each square meter of its projection and each cubic meter of volume, the more attention will have to be paid to it, more time is required for it. removal and maintenance.

 What should be the layout of fruit trees on a plot in the garden?

When shaping the crown of a young tree, you must first lay its skeleton and gradually remove it, adhering to a certain formation. In this case, it is imperative to take into account the peculiarities of the growth and fruiting of this variety, otherwise it will be extremely difficult to create a good crown. It should be durable, easy to care for and easy to harvest.

The branches must be placed so that there is no free space in the volume allocated to this tree and at the same time there is no thickening , and the light regime in the crown ensures the normal development of branches, leaves and fruits. It is also important that the shaping and pruning system promotes early fruiting and annual high yields per unit of crown projection and volume.

Ordinary spherical crowns are most common in home and collective gardening. They can be a leader and leaderless , and bunk bezyarusnymi , with a large and very limited number of main branches that make up the frame and crown.

 

What are the recommended distances between fruit and berry plants for garden plots?

 The distance between fruit and berry plants in the garden

Fruit and berry plants

Distance, m

between the rows

between plants in rows

Apple tree on vigorous rootstocks:

 

 

   spherical crown

8

4

   planar

5

4

Apple tree on medium-sized rootstocks:

 

 

   spherical crown

6-7

3-4

   planar

4

3

Apple tree on weak rootstocks:

 

 

   spherical crown

5

3

   planar

3- 4

2-2.5

Pear on vigorous rootstocks:

 

 

   spherical crown

7-8

4

   planar

5

4

Cherries:

 

 

   spherical crown

7-8

4

   planar

5

3-4

Cherries and plums:

 

 

   strong and medium - sized varieties

5

3

   undersized

4-5

2

Currant, gooseberry, chokeberry

2-2.5

1-1.5

Raspberry, blackberry

2

0.6-0.7

Strawberry

0.7-0.8

0.2

 

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