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Blood test for p- arathyroid hormone . The hormone is elevated what does it mean ?


Parathyroid hormone (PTH - Para - thyroid hormone). The parathyroid glands are small paired formations located near the thyroid gland. They produce parathyroid hormone - PTH, which regulates the exchange of phosphorus and calcium, stimulates the physiological process of the release of these minerals from the bone. PTH lowers the level of phosphorus in the blood, increasing its excretion by the kidneys. Parathyroid hormone increases calcium levels. It affects calcium metabolism directly and indirectly, stimulating the formation of the active form of vitamin D.   

The normal level of parathyroid hormone in the blood serum is 1–5 pmol / L. The amount of calcium in the blood depends, of course, the content of its food, but calcium is available in a variety of products in sufficient quantities, and this factor, in practice, there is no reason not calcium - sufficiency. PTH and vitamin D increase the intake of calcium into the body (increasing its absorption); PTH, besides, reduces the excretion of calcium in the urine, and it is understood that while hormone deficiency conditions for hypocalcemia .

So, for the insufficiency of the function of the parathyroid glands, hyperphosphoremia and hypocalcemia are characteristic . Decreased calcium levels caused by PTH deficiency often lead to tetany . Tetania is a condition associated with low levels of ionized calcium (see the calcium test above), which is involved in neuromuscular regulation. Routine serum calcium testing may be normal or near normal, and an ionized calcium test should be performed . Tetania proceeds with painful spasms of the muscles of the hands ("obstetrician's hand") and feet, with paresthesias , with disorders in the psycho-emotional sphere. Hypoparathyroidism often develops as a result of injury to the parathyroid glands during surgery on the thyroid gland. There is also idiopathic hypoparathyroidism. Increased function of the parathyroid glands occurs with hyperparathyroidism, primary and secondary. Primary hyperparathyroidism is manifested by an increase in blood calcium and a decrease in phosphorus. In addition, there is normally a balance between two physiological processes: resorption and construction of bone tissue. With hyperparathyroidism, the balance is disturbed towards the predominance of resorption (release of minerals from the bone). An increase in blood calcium that develops in primary hyperparathyroidism leads to an increase in calcium in the urine, and hypercalciuria significantly increases the risk of stone formation. In secondary hyperparathyroidism (usually occurring in the end stage of chronic kidney disease), serum phosphorus is elevated and calcium levels are not increased.  

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